Cryptography has come a long long way since the time of Caesar. Now, just about everything we do relies on math. Math, it turns out, is very hard to beat if it is done properly. Math can tell you that it is provably impossible for an attacker to decrypt something earlier than the heat death of the sun. That is pretty awesome. If you find yourself trying to beat math, you're probably attacking the wrong part of the problem. Learn about encryption below.
- You've already read this, but use it to answer the HW. https://web.archive.org/web/20170704130139/https://www.usna.edu/CyberDept/sy110/lec/cryptSymmEnc/lec.html
- What is symmetric encryption?
- Do the HW: https://web.archive.org/web/20170704130139/https://www.usna.edu/CyberDept/sy110//lec/cryptSymmEnc/hw/hw.pdf
- Read this: https://web.archive.org/web/20170704130139/https://www.usna.edu/CyberDept/sy110/lec/cryptAsymmEnc/lec.html
- What is asymmetric encryption?
- Do the HW: https://web.archive.org/web/20170704130139/https://www.usna.edu/CyberDept/sy110/lec/cryptAsymmEnc/hw/hw.pdf
Now here is a slightly more technical primer on how real world cryptography works.
Alright, now that you have an idea of what encryption is, read this https://danielmiessler.com/study/encoding-encryption-hashing-obfuscation/ and explain the differences between the ideas explained.